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Private armies in Bihar


Private caste armies in Bihar

Among the Indian States, private
armies of landowners are unique to Bihar. These private armies were
founded to counter the various left-wing
extremist
, Naxalite, groups operating in different parts of the
State. During the past two decades, an estimated 11 private armies have
existed at varying points of time in the State. It is difficult to state
with certainty the number and names of those that are definitely in
operation today. These armies are created and financed primarily by
landowners to protect their land and properties. One interesting feature
of these private armies is that they are invariably formed on caste-lines.
Clashes between private armies and Naxalite groups have resulted in
a number of massacres, over the years.

Previously, these private
armies confined themselves to protecting the land and properties of
particular castes. However, presently the Ranbir
Sena
is seeking to expand its base by looking after the agrarian
interests of several landlords belonging to the backward castes, too.
Like the Naxalite groups that impose a `levy’ on forest contractors
and illegal mine operators, these private armies have managed to sustain
themselves financially by collecting monthly fees from landlords.

Besides the caste-based
private armies listed here, there existed the Lal Sena between 1974-76.
It was the armed squad of the erstwhile underground Communist Party
of India––Marxist-Leninist (Liberation) and was founded to take-on the
landowners

Major Caste Armies
in Bihar

Name
Year of Formation
Caste Affiliation
Area of Operation
Kuer Sena 1979 Rajput Bhojpur
Kisan Suraksha
Samiti
1979 Kurmi Patna,
Jehanabad, Gaya
Bhumi Sena 1983 Kurmi Patna,
Nawada, Nalanda, Jehanabad
Lorik Sena 1983 Yadav Patna,
Jehanabad, Nalanda
Bramharshi Sena 1984 Bhumihar Bhojpur,
Aurangabad, Jehanabad
Kisan Sangh 1984 Rajput,
Brahmin
Palamu,
Aurangabad
Kisan Sewak Samaj 1985 Rajput Palamu,
Aurangabad
Sunlight Sena 1989 Pathan,
Rajput
Palamu,
Garhwa, Aurangabad, Gaya
Sawarna Liberation
Front
1990 Bhumihar Gaya,
Jehanabad
Kisan Sangh 1990 Bhumihar Patna,
Bhojpur
Kisan Morcha 1989-90 Rajput
Bhojpur
Ganga Sena 1990 Rajput, Bhojpur
Ranvir Sena 1994 Bhumihar Bhojpur,
Patna, Jehanabad, Rohtas, Aurangabad, Gaya
Gram Suraksha
Parishad
1995 ` Bhojpur
Mazdoor Kisan
Sangh
1996 ` Bettiah

Source: Prakash
Louis, People Power: The Naxalite Movement in Central Bihar,
Delhi: Wordsmith, 2002 and various media reports.

Chronology of Massacres in Central Bihar
(1977-2001)

Year

Place

District

Attackers’ Caste/Class

Victims’Caste/Class

Casualty

1976

Akodi

Bhojpur

Upper backward/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

1977

Belchi

Patna

Upper backward/landlords

Scheduled caste/agri. labourers

14

Kargha

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Brahampur

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/middle peasants

4

1978

Kaila

Jehanabad

Upper backward/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

1979

Samhauta

Rohtas

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

4

Bajitpur

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

1980

Pipra

Patna

Upper backward/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

14

Parasbigha

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

Backward caste/agri. labourers

11

1981

Mathila

Bhojpur

Police

Liberation cadres

3

1982

Maini Bigha

Aurangabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

6

1983

Panania

Gaya

Police

MCC cadres

5

1984

Gagan Bigha

Rohtas

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

5

Ambari

Aurangabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Danwar-Bihta

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

22

Kharakpura

Aurangabad

Upper casle/Lorik Sena

SC/agri. labourers

6

1985

Kaithi Bigha

Aurangabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

10

Kunai

Bhojpur

Police

Liberation cadres

2

1986

Neelampur

Gaya

Haare Ram group/Lorik Sena

SC/agri. labourers

5

Gaini

Aurangabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

12

Aminabad

Jehanabad

Upper casle/Brahmarshi Sena

Muslims/Beedi workers

3

Jeenpura

Patna

Ramanand Yadav group/Lorik Sena

SC/agri. labourers

6

Arwal

Jehanabad

Police

MKSS cadres

24

Kansara

Jehanabad

Upper caste/Brahmarshi Sena

Backward caste/agri. labourers

8

Parasdih

Aurangabad

Upper caste/Satyanendra Sena

SC/agri. labourers

5

Darmian

Aurangabad

Upper backward/middle peasants

Upper caste/landlord

11

1987

Chotki-Chhechani

Aurangabad

Upper caste/Satyanendra Sena

Upper backward/Middle peasants

7

Dalelchak-Bhagaura

Aurangabad

Upper backward/middle peasants

Upper caste/landlord

52

1988

Narhan

Jehanabad

Upper backward/dacoits

Upper backward/poor peasants

4

1989

Nonhi-Nagwan

Jehanabad

Ramashish-Rajdev group/Nagwan

Upper backward SC/agri. Labourers

18

Daumha

Jehanabad

Ramashish-Rajdev group/Nagwan

Upper backward SC/agri. Labourers

9

1990

Dariyapur

Patna

Upper backward/Kisan Sangh

SC/agri. Labourers

5

1991

Tiskhora

Patna

Upper backward/Kisan Sangh

SC/agri. Labourers

15

Dev-Sahiara

Bhojpur

Upper caste/Jwala Singh group

SC/agri. Labourers

15

Savanbigha

Jehanabad

Swarna Liberation Front/upper caste

SC/agri. Labourers

7

Theendiha

Gaya

Sunlight Sena/upper caste

SC/agri. Labourers

7

Mein-Barsima

Gaya

Swarna Liberation Front/upper caste

SC/agri. Labourers

10

1992

Bara

Gaya

Upper backward/middle peasants

Upper caste/landowners

34

Chainpur

Rohtas

Police

PU cadres

4

Ashabigha

Gaya

Police

MCC cadres

6

1993

Dadar

Rohtas

Police

Liberation cadres

3

Ekwari

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

4

1994

Aghoura

Rohtas

Police

Party Unity

4

Nadhi

Bhojpur

Police

Liberation cadres

9

Matgharna

Gaya

Police

MCC

11

1995

Khopira

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Sarathua

Bhojpur

do

SC/agri. labourers

6

Gulzarbigha

Aurangabad

Police

PU Cadres

4

1996

Chandi

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

4

Pathalpura

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri- labourers

3

Mathanbigha

Aurangabad

Police

MCC cadres

7

Nanaur

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri- labourers

5

Nadhi

Bhojpur

CPI-ML cadres

Upper caste/landlords

8

Nadhi

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

9

Morath

Bhojpur

Upper caste/ landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Bathanitola

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC and Muslims/agri. labourers

22

Purhara

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

4

Khanet

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

5

Ekwari

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

6

1997

Khanet

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Machil

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Haibaspur

Patna

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

10

Akhopur

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

4

Jalpura

Patna

PU cadres

Upper caste/landlords

11

Indo

Patna

Police

PU cadres

6

Ekwari

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri- labourers

10

K-hadasin

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

8

K-odihara

Patna

Police

PU cadres

2

Katesar Nala

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

6

Lakshmanpur-Bathe

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

58

Chauram

Jehanabad

CPI(ML) Liberation

Upper caste/landlords

9

1998

Nagri

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

10

Aiyara

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

3

Sigori

Gaya

Police

MCC

6

Rampur-Aiyara

Jehanabad

PU cadres

Upper caste/landlords

7

Mahadevbigha

Gaya

Police

MCC cadres

4

1999

Shankarbigha

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

23

Narayanpur

Jehanabad

Upper caste/landlords

SC/agri. labourers

11

Usri Bazar

Jehanabad

Liberation cadres

Upper caste/landlords

7

Bheempura

Jehanabad

PW cadres

Upper caste/landlords

4

Senari

Jehanabad

MCC cadres

Upper caste/landlords

35

Sujathpur

Buxar

Police

Liberation cadres

16

Sendani

Gaya

Upper caste/landlords

Backward caste &. SC

12

2000

Lakhisaraia

Lakhisarai

Backward caste/Contractors

SC/Sand workers

11

Rajebigha b

Nawada

Upper caste/landlords

Backward caste/Middle farmers

5

Afsar c

Nawada

Backward caste/Middle farmers

Upper caste landlords

12

Mianpur d

Aurangabad

Upper caste/landlords

Backward caste and SC

35

Dumariyan e

Bhojpur

Upper caste/landlords

Backward caste and SC

6

2001

Chironichi bigha

Gaya

MCC cadres

Police

6

Kariambura

Jehanabad

Police

PW cadres

5

a This
massacre is not related to the agrarian struggle per se. It was an outcome
of the struggle for hegemony over sand quarry in the Ganges and Sone
riverbeds. In this incident the struggle for supremacy between two contenders
for sand quarry—both from the same upper backward caste and supporters
of political party currently ruling in Bihar—led to the killing of 11
labourers.

b This massacre
has a special significance to the agrarian movement going on in Bihar.
Though not directly linked with the Naxalite movement, this massacre
opened up once again the struggle between the forwards and the backwards.
Its echo could be heard in the Mianpur massacre. Akhilesh Singh, the
prime accused in this massacre, was an MLA in the Bihar Legislative
Assembly.

For details on political leaders with
criminal background, see ‘Legitimising Gun Culture in Bihar’, The
Hindu
, 23 June 2000, p. 9.

c The Afsar
massacre was a revenge killing by the backward castes, who were victims
of Rajebigha massacre. Twelve Bhumihars were killed in Afsar village
of Kashichak block of Nawada district. The victims were not involved
in the Rajebigha massacre, but were relatives of the perpetrators of
the Rajebigha massacre. This also brought lo fore the political conflict
that has been going on in Bihar between the ruling Rashtriya Janala
Dal and its main rival, the Samata Party.

d This was
the first massacre committed by the Ranvir Sena in Aurangabad district.
Until then, the presence of the Ranvir Sena in Aurangabad was considered
to be nominal in comparison with its presence in other central Bihar
districts. For details, see Louis 2000b.

e This was
the second massacre in Bhojpur district by the Ranvir Sena in two years.
The sena originated in Bhqjpur district but in course of time spread
to other districts too. After the Dumariyan massacre, the struggle between
the Ranvir Sena and the CPI(ML) Liberation became sharper. See Times
of India, 11 September 2001. p. 1.

Source: Prakash
Louis, People Power: The Naxalite Movement in Central Bihar,
New Delhi: Wordsmiths, 2002, Table 8.8, pp.242-246.

3 responses

  1. aditYa akash

    the three idiots of bihar.. Bhumihar , brahman ,rajput :p i hate ranvir sena and its policies…BHURA BAL saaf kro.

    January 20, 2012 at 12:58 AM

  2. aditYa akash

    the three idiots of bihar.. Bhumihar , brahman ,rajput :p i hate ranvir sena and its policies

    January 20, 2012 at 12:56 AM

  3. Anku Sharma

    I am proud to say that I am bhumihar,Ranveer sena hi ne bhumihar samaj ki raksha ki isi ke badaulat hum bhumihar samaj ke log aaj garva se kehte hain ki hum bhumihar hai.

    May 16, 2011 at 12:30 PM

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