"Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid." – Albert Einstein

Bhumihar’s History I

Pandit Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya says that according to legend constructed by some Brahmins other than Bhumihar Brahmins, the Bhumihars were non-Brahmin Hindus who were conferred the status of Brahmins by a Raja who wanted more Brahmins in his kingdom in order to celebrate religious festivals. Pandit Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya in his book Hindu Castes and Sects published in 1896, went on to write about the origin of Bhumihar Brahmins of Bihar and Banaras as: “The clue to the exact status of the Bhumihar Brahmans is afforded by their very name. The word literally means a landholder. In the language of the Indian feudal systems, Bhoom is the name given to a kind of tenure similar to the Inams and Jagirs of Mohammedan times. By a Bhoom, according to the Rajputana Gazeteer, an hereditary, non-resumableand inalienable property in soil was inseparably bound up with a revenue-free title. Bhoom was given as a compensation for bloodshedin order to quell a feud, for distinguished services in the field, for protection of a border or for the watch and ward of the village. The meaning of the designation Bhumihar being as stated above, the Bhumihar Brahmans are evidently these Brahmans who held grants of land for secular service. Whoever held a secular fief was Bhumihar. Where a Brahman held such a tenure, he was called a Bhumihar Brahman….Bhumihar Brahmans are sometimes called simply Bhumihars…”


Bhumihar or Babhan or Bhuin-har is a Brahmin community mainly found in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. Bhumihars are classified in the Brahmin varna of Hinduism but this claim has been contested by some. Bhumihars are landowning Brahmins who came to own land in different periods of History through land grants by kings or during the rule of Brahmin kings.

According to M. A. Sherring some of the Bhumihars belong to the Saryupareen Brahmin division of Kanyakubja Brahmins. In the 19th (held at Prayag) and 20th (held at Lucknow) national convention of Kanyakubja Brahmins by Kanyakubja Mahati Sabha, in 1926 and 1927 respectively, it reiterated Bhumihars to be Kanyakubja Brahmins and appealed for unity among Kanyakubja Brahmins whose different branches included Sanadhya, Pahadi, Jujhoutia, Saryupareen, Chattisgarhi, Bhumihar and different Bengali Brahmins. Bhumihars have been the traditional priests at Vishnupad Mandir in Gaya as Gayawar Pandas and in the adjoining districts like Hazaribagh. The Kingdom of Kashi belonged to Bhumihar Brahmins and big zamindari like Bettiah Raj, Hathwa Raj and Tekari Raj belonged to them. Bhumihars were well respected Brahmins in the courts of Dumraon Maharaj, King of Nepal and Raj Darbhanga. The Bhumihar population of Uttar Pradesh had an average literacy of less than 12% in 1911 Some Mohyal Brahmins migrated eastward and are believed to constitute some sub-divisions of Bhumihars, some of whom are also descendants of HussainiBrahminss and mourn the death of Imam Hussain. There is also a significant migrant population of Bhumihars in Mauritius, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and others.

Bhumihars are commonly called Babhans which is the Pali word for Brahmins and is used to refer to Brahmins in Buddhist sources. In recent times, Bhumihars have been in the forefront of casteist violence in some places of Bihar state.


The Bhumihars claim that when Parashurama destroyed the Kshatriya race, and he set up in their place the descendants of Brahmins, who, after a time, having mostly abandoned their priestly functions (although some still perform), took to land-owning. They also claim that Lord Parashurama was the first Bhumihar.

Caste-related violence

Bhumihars, have been involved in many caste-related conflicts . However, it was in reply to the requests made by Yadav peasants in 1927, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati had started the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha, which led to the largest peasant movement in the country. Bhumihars also gave Bihar its first chief minister in Sri Krishna Singh who had himself led Dalit’s entry into Baidyanath Dham (Vaidyanath Temple, Deoghar).

Following independence, Naxalite groups began to originate in Bihar in response to low wages and alleged illtreatment of Dalit peasants by upper-caste landlords. Some Bhumihars and other upper-caste landlords responded by starting private militias called Senas. These were heavily funded and promoted by some Bhumihar landlords to fight extremist Naxalite groups which supposedly represented low-caste Bihari peasants. Hostilities began to intensify when in 1994, the Ranvir Sena was founded in Belaur village to counter Naxal terrorism. Since its formation, the Ranvir Sena has been held responsible for murder, rape and burglary in Bihar. This outfit, along with the Maoist Communist Centre, has been responsible for large-scale violence in Bihar. Incidents of violence have been reported from the villages of Belaur, Bara, Senari, Ekwari, Chandi, Nanaur, Narhi, Sarathau, Haibaspur, Laxmanpur-Bathe, Shankarbigha, and Narayanpur.


110 responses

  1. Ajit

    @Suprabh…My main concern here is that whatever doubt u guys have…that shud be raised in a very polite way without being offensive towards any community and without using wrong words. The way u asked ur concern is decent and wud appreciate if we all can maintain such decency and the way Prafulji replied is also very polite. So good going every1.

    May 19, 2011 at 6:57 PM

  2. You can raise many question but you can get answer here.
    Open the link and read it carefully.

    May 19, 2011 at 5:53 PM

  3. suprabh

    dear ajit ji.i m agree with ur view nd i wld like to add one mre tng abut bhmiharv ……inki jaat mai sirf 6 raja huai hai.i wld request u 2 through some light on few point.

    1.inki histroy kya hai …..after mughal ….after british ….kab …sayad inko bhi pata nahi hai ….

    2.india mai kaha kaha paya jata hai …sirf bihat or u.p mai…..kyo …..?

    3.inka ek title kyo nahi hai ….?rajput kaa to ekk hi hai ….singh

    4.inko black cobra kyo kahte hai ….?

    5.bihar mai koi bhi in par trust nahi karta hai …i dn”t kn abt u.p …why so

    May 19, 2011 at 2:44 PM

  4. Ajit

    @PrafulJi :Thanks for your initiative….

    May 18, 2011 at 11:14 AM

  5. Yeah Dear Ajit ji, Your approach is highly appreciated.

    Only because of few people we were fighting. Bad comments will be removed.
    We encourage people to comment and express their opinion but we can’t accept bad words.

    May 17, 2011 at 7:55 PM

  6. Ajit

    @PrafulJi…I liked your mature response andI have never been abusive towards Bhumiar community till now. There is few basic difference between both the communities…i.e..the diff of history….Rajput history has been glorious and its this name is taken in regard to macho ism and bravery and even enemy accept this fact..thats y Akbar married Jodha to build good relation with Rajputs. Duniya me aap ek bhi aisi community dikha dijiye jahan pe sab log mahan ho.? its not possible bcz afterall we r human being and to err is human.
    But ya…thr r only few communities which has produced lots of famous personalities and we r amongst them undoubtedly be it any field…politics(2 PM,1Vice-president,1President) ,sports,media,education etc..name is countless… with rich history,leadership qualities and all these traits make Rajput a proud caste and u cant remove it from them..
    On other hand Bhumihar have been major land holding community in Bihar which also generates a sense of pride in them which ofcourse one shud have but when it comes of comparison and u have tug of war with Rajputs then ofcourse they will say that U r major in Bihar but We r major in india…We have ruled over this country and our identity is not limited to a particular state but across entire india…
    See i have placed my views in quite logical and effective way and that shud be the way of discussion..Discussion shud be logic based and on well proven record….Main dogla ya tum dogla..will never work .agar main ye to kyun aur tum ye to kyun…if we go by that principle then thr wont be fight…
    Waise bhi mahini to bhumiharo ki khasiyat hai isliye is tarah ki mahini(softy skills) aaplogo ke end se aani chaiye…. aggresivness wil yield result only in battle field..not in day to day life..
    I will request everyone not to use abusive language towards any caste.Agar apne ko uncha hi prove karna hai to logical way me comparison kiya jaye.. which shud be based on data..not on empty words..Lets not go by perception..rather than go by facts.

    May 17, 2011 at 3:46 PM

  7. प्रिय अजीत जी,

    में आपकी बातों से बिल्कुल ही सहमत हूँ प्रिय अजीत जी, और मैने बचपन में बहुत सी कहानिया सुनी है राजपूत राजाओं के बारे में. ओर मेरी उनसे कोई. जयदती दुश्मनी नही है.

    भूमिहरों का विस्तृत इतिहास नही मिलता .लेकिन कुछ लोग खंखावाह राजपूत ओर भूमिहार की लड़ाई छे र दिए इसलिए सही ग़लत कॉमेंट्स आने लगे. अगर लोग आपस में लड़ना चाहे तो क्या किया जा सकता है.

    May 17, 2011 at 2:12 PM

  8. Ajit

    Akbar ne Jodha ko **** (apni biwi ko…wo bhi shadi karke)..man liya…kya unke bachhe Rajput kahylaye? ya unke bachon ko rajput category me kabi dala gaya? nai na….Rajput tabhi Raput mana jayega jiska lineage Rajput parents se hoga..(ma,bap dono)…. inter catse aur inter religion marriages ke product kabhi rajput nahi ho sakte..show me any example…..Waise kitni bar Bhumiharo ne Muhglo se lada hai? kahan chupe the us waqt? Girte hain ghudsawar hi maidane jung me……aagar 2 bate tum point kar sakte ho Rajputon ke bare me to 1000 virta ki gatahye bhi suni hongi….
    Honestly batao yaron…India ka bravest caste ab tak kon hua? ….

    May 17, 2011 at 12:19 PM

  9. Ajit

    Akbar ne Jodha ko **** (apni biwi ko…wo bhi shadi karke)..man liya…kya unke bachhe Rajput kahylaye? ya unke bachon ko rajput category me kabi dala gaya? nai na….Rajput tabhi Raput mana jayega jiska lineage Rajput parents se hoga..(ma,bap dono)…. inter catse aur inter religion marriages ke product kabhi rajput nahi ho sakte..show me any example…..Waise kitni bar Bhumiharo ne Muhglo se lada hai? kahan chupe the us waqt? Girte hain ghudsawar hi maidane jung me……aagar 2 bate tum point kar sakte ho Rajputon ke bare me to 1000 virta ki gatahye bhi suni hongi….
    Honestly batao yaron…India ka bravest caste ab tak kon hua?

    May 17, 2011 at 12:18 PM

  10. suprabh kumarv roshan

    dear praful…..

    i think u mst visit to doctor….jis nai hamesha diya ho usko tum gready kah rahe ho …pata hai tumhari jaat kaa jaanm kaise hua hai ….rajput ladka nai pandit yaa brahmman ki bete ***** di to bhumiyaar jaan lia hai …dn”t u kn this

    May 9, 2011 at 11:01 PM

  11. Ajit

    @sonu:- yar history thik se padha karo…jo marne se kabhi na dare.,..ran bhumi me jisne kabhi apna pith na dikhaya ho..apne watan ke liye mar mitne walon ko tum selfish kahoge?? bravery ka dusra nam rajput hai…m sure u r bhumihar ..;dogle: jaisa adjective hamesha bhumiharon ke sath lagta aaya hai..ek survey karwa ke dekh lena..though i dont want to be rude ..since u provoked me so m tellinh…aur kis history ki bat kar rahe ho yar? kahin history me padha bhi hai kya bhumiharo ke bare me? jara mere ko bhi book bhej dena….poori history me kya tumhe man singh aur jychand hi dikha abhi tak….agar mahan hastiyon ke nam ginwana shurur karu to ye space kam pad jayega….isliye soch samjh ke comment kiya karo..

    May 9, 2011 at 9:15 PM

  12. Sonu Kumar

    bhai lo rajput bhumihar me kuchh bhi nahi hai………..rajput kahte hai rajput bada bhumihar kahye hai hum bada………….lekin jaha tak mujhe jankari hai rajput log selfish aur dogla hote hai……………..mai na hi bhumihar hu na hi rajput hu……………….king man singh ne to rajputo ka nak katwa ke rakh dia jabki kabhi bhi kisi bhumihar ne apne ijjat pe anch nahi aane di………………..

    May 2, 2011 at 9:12 AM

  13. Ajit

    Hi.parshuram ke time me agar rajput word kahin mention nahi kiya hua hai to kya “Bhumihar” word kahin dekhne ko mila kya? n its a myth..which mean which has got no relevence with the truth…n now the diff between khsatriya n Rajput is that there are many castes like Jat,gujjar,yadav is classified under kshatriya which is a warrior group n Rajput mean a member of kshatriya group which has got royal lineage (Ruling class). Now
    I have answer for all your question but somehow i feel that its an endless discussion and now i think we should quit such talks because everyone should be proud of their caste and community (Let history do the talk..why should we?)and such things create rivalry between the communities which may hamper the growth of our country in the long run.
    So no offence towards anybody and may peace prevail in the society.
    Cheers to All Bhumihar ,Rajputs and all caste..

    November 10, 2010 at 10:38 AM

  14. abe saalo kya bhumihar rajput laga raakha hai.we r all human.jaha tak baat hai rjpt ki to mai yah kahna chahta hu ki.in the time of parsuram only kshatriya r avilable.n ki rajput.so dear rajput dont keep jealosi about bhumihar.otherwise you can fall in donger sichuationt.rajput are only strong.and other hand bhumihar are strong & wise.i m not supporitng to anyone.
    ………………..ARYAN SINGH…………………………………………………………
    …………………………………SINGH IS KING……………………………..
    …………………..I M ONE MAN ARMY……………………………………………………

    November 9, 2010 at 6:12 PM

  15. Nidhi Sharma

    @zinat parween: tu kiski padais hai be jake pehle apni maa se puch phir bhumiharo k bare mey bolna…….

    November 1, 2010 at 3:18 PM

  16. Mythology

    The Bhumihars claim that when Parashurama destroyed the Kshatriya race, and he set up in their place the descendants of Brahmins, who, after a time, having mostly abandoned their priestly functions (although some still perform), took to land-owning. They also claim that Lord Parashurama was the first Bhumihar.[29][30]

    By the sixteenth century, Bhumihars known as karm kandi pandit controlled vast stretches of territory, particularly in North Bihar.[31] In South Bihar, their most prominent representative was the Tekari family, whose great estate in Gaya dates back to the early eighteenth century.[31] With the decline of Mughal Empire, in the area of south of Avadh, in the fertile rive-rain rice growing areas of Benares, Gorakhpur, Deoria, Ghazipur, Ballia and Bihar and on the fringes of Bengal, it was the ‘military’ or Bhumihar Brahmins who strengthened their sway.[32] The distinctive ‘caste’ identity of Bhumihar Brahman emerged largely through military service, and then confirmed by the forms of continuous ‘social spending’ which defined a man and his kin as superior and lordly.[33] In 19th century, many of the Bhumihar Brahmins were zamindars. Of the 67000 Hindus in the Bengal Army in 1842, 28000 were identified as Rajputs and 25000 as Brahmins, a category that included Bhumihar Brahmins.[34] The Brahmin presence in the Bengal Army was reduced in the late nineteenth century because of their perceived primary role as mutineers in the Mutiny of 1857[35], led by Mangal Pandey. Now, a majority of them are farmers with some big land-holders.

    Some Bhumihars had settled in Chandipur, Murshidabad during late nineteenth and early twentieth century where they are at the top of the social hierarchy.[36] Before independence, it was the custom of the Bhumihar Brahmins to stage an elaborate Kālī puja, during which annual payments were made to servants and gifts of cloth were distributed to dependents, both Hindu and Muslim.[36]

    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhumihar

    October 30, 2010 at 1:19 AM

  17. hai im v.ananth

    October 29, 2010 at 5:43 PM

  18. Bullet

    My name is Ajit and I posted my questions in nick name of Bullet

    October 28, 2010 at 10:26 AM

  19. Ajit

    Praful bhai namaskar……aapne abhi tak mere sawalo ko jawab nahi diya…i posted my questions long time back n u can still see that post…

    October 28, 2010 at 10:25 AM

  20. priyanka

    i hate bhumihar

    October 12, 2010 at 9:57 PM

  21. Bullet

    Dear Praful, Reply to my questions one by one and lets be logical.
    1.>Have u ever seen the name of bhumihar community in history? agar han to bhai kis book me padha hai? us book ka nam bata dena?where as i m sure that every body has studied the history of rajputs even u too.Agree or not?

    2>Aaj tak kabhi bhumihar community pe kabhi movie bani hai?nahi na lekin bahut sari movies rajput community pe bani hai and its always in a positive form

    U say that rajput are selfish ,greedy …whereas history says that rajput are known for their patriotism,valour jo apni jan ki baji laga ke bhi desh ke liye ladte hain.therfor indian army me bhi “rajput regiment” hai..na ki “bhumihar regiment”.
    Show me a single history book whereas rajput term is used as sign of dishonour ya kisi bhi negative sense me.

    U talk about invasion then arent u aware that jis country ki british army nahi hara payi usko rajputon ne jita tha n that country is “NEPAL”.Go n read history properly.
    N how many countries did bhumihar invaded?hehhehehe.even u guys r self proclaimed great warriors.??aisa sirf tum log bolte ho..koi manta nahi hai bcz there is no evidence.hehehhehe

    kitne bhumiharon ne mughalo se lada? kahan the us waqt?”ye hai apna rajputana naj ise talwaro pe” aaj bhi ye song sare india me gaya jata hai.

    “Only because then not selfish, hence no one remember him.” this was ur reply for not being remebered in history whereas the reason is that that there is nothing done by bhumihar community so that they could be remebered.waise to dom, chamar,teli baniya bhi ye bat bol sakte hai ki they r not selfish so they r not remebered but ye batao ki inlogo ke bare me kya likha jaye??
    Dear m not being rude or partial but will definitely agree that great person like mangal pandey or chanakya hav got their name in history and we respect such personality.I mean in logo ne aisa kam kiya is liye nam aaya lekin in logo ke alawa aur kisi ne nam nahi kama paya except few more and muthi bhar nami log to dom chamar me bhi mil jayengnge..
    So dont ever say such things…jin logo ne desh ke liye kuch kiya unka nam history me jarur aaya aur han desh ke liye karne wale kabhi selfish nahi ho sakte aur isiliye rajputon ka nam history me amar ho gaya

    “Where as general opinion about Bhumihar is bad only in Bihar not out site Bihar”ur statement.

    Reply” general opinion about bhumihar cant be bad outside bihar bcz no body even knows about this caste and my dear u will have to agree with this.go to northindian sates like delhi,rajstan punjab and say that u r bhumihar , they will not even recognize u.hhhehhe.I have seen pitiable condition of my bhumihar friends when they r asked about their caste outside bihar.

    8.>Lastly u cant prove that ur community is good by proving others wrong.tell me without comparing as how ur community is great and who agrees with this fact.any historical reference.
    And i never say that there is no wrong in rajput community.Drawback are every where but u cant just see only their negative side and ignore its positive side as normaly Bhumihars do against Rajput.

    I will be highly obliged if u reply to all my questions one by one in a decent way as i did and with logic and proofs so that it remains a healthy discussion.
    Let me confess that my maximum close friends are bhumihars and I personally dont have any hard feelng about ur community.

    April 27, 2010 at 1:19 PM

  22. Only because they aren’t selfish, Hence no one remember him.
    Whereas Rajputas are greedy, selfish blah blah blah… and our history is full off this.
    If Rajputas history is so reach then can you tell me Which country they invaded????
    Not a single country!!! LOL!!!

    Where as general opinion about Bhumihar is bad only in Bihar not out site Bihar.
    You know why? because some people are like YOU who never accept others creative work!!!!

    April 26, 2010 at 12:25 AM

  23. bullet

    why Bhumihar is an unknown commmunity beyond Bihar and UP?Nobody is aware about this community whereas rajputs are known all over india.
    2.>Why the general opinion about bhumihar is very bad?
    Why bhumihars dont have rich history like rajputs?

    April 22, 2010 at 3:27 AM

  24. Because Bhumihar’s never compromise! 🙂

    February 15, 2010 at 5:34 PM

  25. Pranav raj

    Why bumihars compared as cobra?

    February 4, 2010 at 6:53 AM

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